The race to Mars has been heating up in recent years, with various countries vying to establish a foothold on the Red Planet. As space agencies and private organizations pour resources into research, development, and testing, the dream of establishing a human presence on Mars is closer than ever before, but the question “Who is the 1st country to reach Mars?” is still unanswered. In this article, we will delve into the latest updates on Mars missions from different countries and explore the current state of the Mars mission landscape.
Table of Contents
United States – NASA and SpaceX
The United States has long been at the forefront of space exploration, with NASA leading the charge.
InSight Mars Lander Mission
The InSight Mars Lander, short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport, is a NASA mission designed to study the deep interior of Mars. Launched on May 5, 2018, and landing on Mars on November 26, 2018, InSight’s primary objective is to understand the formation and evolution of Mars by investigating its crust, mantle, and core. The data collected from InSight helps scientists gain insight into the early formation of terrestrial planets in our solar system.
InSight is equipped with a suite of scientific instruments to carry out its mission:
- Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS): SEIS is a highly sensitive seismometer that measures seismic activity, such as marsquakes and meteorite impacts, on Mars. By studying the seismic waves generated by these events, scientists can infer the planet’s internal structure and composition, providing valuable information about its formation and evolution.
- Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3): The HP3 instrument, also known as “the mole,” is a self-hammering probe designed to burrow up to 5 meters (16 feet) into the Martian soil. It measures the heat flow from the planet’s interior, providing information about Mars’ geothermal activity and the amount of heat escaping from its core.
- Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE): RISE is a radio science experiment that tracks the lander’s position on Mars using the Deep Space Network antennas on Earth. By monitoring the variations in Mars’ rotation, scientists can deduce information about the size and composition of the planet’s core.
- Auxiliary instruments: InSight is also equipped with a suite of auxiliary instruments, including cameras, a magnetometer, and a meteorological station, to support its primary scientific objectives and monitor the lander’s environment.
The InSight mission has already made significant discoveries, such as detecting hundreds of marsquakes, measuring the planet’s magnetic field, and revealing the structure of the Martian crust. However, the HP3 instrument has faced challenges in burrowing into the Martian soil, limiting the data collected about the planet’s heat flow.
Despite these setbacks, InSight continues to provide valuable data that deepens our understanding of Mars and the early history of terrestrial planets in our solar system. The mission, initially planned to last for one Martian year (approximately 687 Earth days), has been extended through December 2022.
Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter
NASA’s Mars mission, dubbed Mars 2020, achieved significant success with the launch of the Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter in July 2020. As of now, both vehicles continue to explore the Martian surface, sending back valuable data and images.
Perseverance is a car-sized rover developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of its Mars 2020 space mission to Mars. Launched on July 30, 2020, and landing on Mars on February 18, 2021, Perseverance has been tasked with exploring the Martian surface, particularly the Jezero Crater, to study the planet’s geology, climate, and search for signs of past microbial life. It is also responsible for collecting and caching rock and soil samples that will be returned to Earth in a future Mars Sample Return mission.
Perseverance builds on the design and engineering achievements of its predecessor, the Curiosity rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012. However, Perseverance is equipped with several advancements and new scientific instruments that make it more capable of achieving its mission objectives. Key features and instruments of the Perseverance rover include:
- SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals): SHERLOC is a spectrometer that uses Raman, fluorescence spectroscopy, and a high-resolution camera to detect and analyze organic molecules and minerals, which could provide clues about past life on Mars.
- PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry): PIXL is an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that can analyze the elemental composition of Martian rocks and soil, helping scientists understand the geologic history of the planet.
- MOXIE (Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment): MOXIE is an experimental technology designed to produce oxygen from the carbon dioxide present in Mars’ atmosphere. If successful, this technology could be scaled up to provide oxygen for future human missions to Mars.
- MEDA (Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer): MEDA is a suite of sensors that measures temperature, wind speed and direction, pressure, relative humidity, and dust size and shape. These measurements will help scientists better understand the Martian climate and weather.
- RIMFAX (Radar Imager for Mars’ Subsurface Experiment): RIMFAX is a ground-penetrating radar that can probe the Martian subsurface to detect geologic features like water ice and sedimentary layers, providing insights into the planet’s geological history.
- SuperCam: SuperCam is a suite of remote sensing instruments, including a camera, laser, and spectrometers, that can analyze the composition and structure of rocks and soil from a distance. It can also help identify potential signs of past life on Mars.
- Mastcam-Z: Mastcam-Z is a stereo imaging system that captures high-resolution color images and 3D information about the Martian terrain, assisting with rover navigation and scientific observations.
- Ingenuity Helicopter: Perseverance carries a small helicopter named Ingenuity, which has successfully completed multiple test flights on Mars. Ingenuity serves as a technology demonstration to assess the feasibility of powered, controlled flight in the thin Martian atmosphere, potentially paving the way for future aerial exploration of the Red Planet.
Perseverance’s mission is expected to last at least one Martian year (about 687 Earth days). The rover’s findings will contribute to our understanding of Mars’ past habitability, the possibility of past life, and the potential challenges of future human exploration.
Mars Sample Return
NASA’s next Mars mission, dubbed Mars Sample Return, is slated for launch in 2026. This ambitious project aims to collect rock and soil samples from the Martian surface and return them to Earth for detailed analysis. In collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA), NASA is developing advanced technologies to achieve this goal, such as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and the Earth Return Orbiter (ERO).
The Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is a collaborative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) to collect rock and soil samples from the Martian surface and return them to Earth for detailed analysis. This ambitious Mars mission project, set for launch in the late 2020s, is considered one of the most complex and challenging missions in the history of robotic planetary exploration. The main objectives of the MSR mission are to better understand Mars’ geology, climate, and history, as well as search for potential signs of past or present life.
The Mars Sample Return mission comprises several stages and spacecraft:
- Sample Collection: NASA’s Perseverance rover, which landed on Mars in February 2021, is responsible for collecting and caching rock and soil samples in sealed tubes. Perseverance will collect up to 38 samples during its mission, which will then be stored on the Martian surface.
- Sample Retrieval Lander (SRL): The SRL, provided by NASA, is expected to launch in 2026. The lander will touch down near the Perseverance rover’s location in Jezero Crater. The lander will carry the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and the Sample Fetch Rover (SFR), a small European-built rover.
- Sample Fetch Rover (SFR): The ESA-developed Sample Fetch Rover will be deployed from the Sample Retrieval Lander to collect the cached samples. Once the samples are retrieved, the SFR will return them to the lander and transfer the sealed tubes to the MAV.
- Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV): The MAV, provided by NASA, is a small, solid-fueled rocket designed to launch the collected samples into Mars orbit. Once the samples are securely placed inside the MAV’s Earth Return Orbiter (ERO) rendezvous module, the rocket will lift off from the Martian surface.
- Earth Return Orbiter (ERO): Developed by ESA, the ERO will be in orbit around Mars, waiting to capture the sample container launched by the MAV. Once the rendezvous module with the samples is captured, the ERO will depart Mars and begin its journey back to Earth.
- Sample Return Capsule: The sample container will be placed in a specially designed Sample Return Capsule (SRC) to ensure the samples remain uncontaminated during their journey back to Earth. The SRC will be released from the ERO upon approaching Earth and will descend through the atmosphere before landing, most likely in the United States, where scientists will recover the samples for analysis.
The Mars Sample Return mission represents a significant step forward in Mars mission, exploration and scientific understanding. The return of Martian samples to Earth will provide invaluable insights into the planet’s geology, climate, and history, and it may also help answer the longstanding question of whether life ever existed on Mars. Moreover, the technological advancements and international collaboration in the MSR mission will pave the way for future human missions to the Red Planet.
SpaceX Mars missions
SpaceX, the private space exploration company founded by Elon Musk, has ambitious plans to send humans to Mars and eventually establish a sustainable human presence on the Red Planet. The goal is to make humanity a multi-planetary species, safeguarding our survival against potential global catastrophes and furthering the exploration and development of space.
SpaceX is developing the Starship, a fully reusable spacecraft, to achieve its Mars mission objectives. The Starship is designed to carry up to 100 passengers and a large payload of cargo, enabling long-duration missions to Mars and beyond. It will be powered by the Super Heavy rocket booster, which uses SpaceX’s Raptor engines fueled by liquid methane and liquid oxygen. The choice of methane as fuel is strategic, as it can potentially be synthesized on Mars, enabling refueling for return trips to Earth and long-term sustainability.
The timeline for SpaceX’s Mars mission consists of several phases:
- Starship Development and Testing: SpaceX is currently in the process of developing, testing, and refining the Starship design. This includes a series of high-altitude flight tests and, eventually, orbital test flights to demonstrate the spacecraft’s capabilities and ensure its reliability and safety.
- Uncrewed Mars Missions: Before sending humans to Mars, SpaceX plans to launch uncrewed missions to deliver cargo, equipment, and supplies to the Martian surface. These missions will serve as a foundation for future crewed missions, testing the spacecraft’s performance in the Martian environment, and setting up essential infrastructure such as habitats, power systems, and life support systems.
- Crewed Mars Missions: Once the Starship has been proven reliable and the necessary infrastructure is in place, SpaceX intends to send its first crewed mission to Mars. The crew will focus on further establishing the infrastructure required for a sustainable human presence, conducting scientific research, and exploring the Martian surface.
- Establishing a Mars Base and Settlement: Over time, SpaceX envisions a growing Mars base that will eventually develop into a self-sustaining settlement. This will require advancements in technology, resource utilization, and human adaptability to the Martian environment.
Elon Musk has expressed hope that the first uncrewed mission to Mars could take place as early as 2024, with crewed missions potentially following within the next decade. However, these ambitious timelines should be taken with caution, as there are still many technical, logistical, and regulatory challenges to overcome. Nevertheless, SpaceX’s plans for Mars missions represent a significant step forward in the future of space exploration and human settlement of the solar system.
China – Tianwen-1 and Beyond
Tianwen-1 and the Zhurong rover
Tianwen-1 is China’s first independent interplanetary mission to Mars, launched by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) on July 23, 2020. The name “Tianwen” means “questions to heaven” and comes from a poem by the ancient Chinese poet Qu Yuan. The mission aims to study Mars’ geology, soil, atmosphere, ionosphere, climate, and magnetic field, as well as search for signs of water and ice. Tianwen-1 Mars mission consists of an orbiter, a lander, and a rover named Zhurong.
The Tianwen-1 orbiter carries scientific instruments to gather data about Mars from orbit, including a high-resolution camera, a mineral spectrometer, and a magnetometer. Additionally, the orbiter serves as a communication relay between the Zhurong rover and Earth. The orbiter successfully entered Mars’ orbit on February 10, 2021.
The Zhurong Mars rover mission, named after the Chinese god of fire, was part of the lander module that touched down on Mars on May 14, 2021, in Utopia Planitia, a large plain in the planet’s northern hemisphere. With a mass of about 240 kilograms, Zhurong is equipped with six wheels and a solar panel array for power generation. The rover is designed to operate for at least 90 Martian sols (approximately 92 Earth days).
Zhurong carries several scientific instruments to study the Martian surface and subsurface, including:
- Mars Surface Composition Detector (MSCD): MSCD is an instrument that uses X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the elemental composition of Martian rocks and soil.
- Mars Ground-Penetrating Radar (MGPR): MGPR is a subsurface radar system that can probe the Martian subsurface to a depth of up to 100 meters, searching for water ice and other geological features.
- Mars Surface Magnetic Field Detector (MSMFD): MSMFD measures the magnetic field on the Martian surface, helping scientists understand the planet’s magnetic environment and its interaction with the solar wind.
- Mars Meteorology Monitor (MMM): MMM is a suite of sensors that measure temperature, pressure, wind speed, and wind direction, providing insights into the Martian atmosphere and climate.
- Mars Surface Compound Detector (MSCD) and Multispectral Camera: The MSCD is a combination of cameras that capture high-resolution images of the Martian surface in different wavelengths. These images can reveal the mineral composition and structure of rocks and soil, helping scientists study the geology and history of Mars.
- Navigation and Topography Cameras: These cameras assist with rover navigation and generate 3D maps of the Martian terrain.
Zhurong’s successful landing made China the third country, after the United States and the Soviet Union, to achieve a soft landing on Mars. The rover’s ongoing exploration and data collection contribute to our growing understanding of the Red Planet and demonstrate China’s increasing capabilities in space exploration.
China’s future Mars sample return mission
China has announced its plans to carry out a Mars sample return mission in the coming years, building on the success of its Tianwen-1 mission and the Zhurong rover. The ambitious Mars mission, tentatively planned for the 2030s, would involve collecting rock and soil samples from the Martian surface and returning them to Earth for analysis. The mission is expected to further China’s understanding of Mars’ geology, climate, and history, as well as search for potential signs of past or present life.
Although specific details about the mission’s architecture and design have not been disclosed, a Mars sample return mission typically consists of several stages and spacecraft, such as:
- Sample Collection: A rover or lander would be responsible for collecting and caching rock and soil samples in sealed tubes on the Martian surface.
- Sample Retrieval Lander: A lander would touch down near the location of the cached samples, carrying a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and potentially a small rover to retrieve the samples.
- Sample Transfer: The rover would transfer the sealed sample tubes to the MAV once it has collected them.
- Mars Ascent Vehicle: The MAV, a small rocket, would launch the collected samples into Mars orbit.
- Orbiter and Rendezvous: An orbiter would be in orbit around Mars, waiting to capture the sample container launched by the MAV.
- Earth Return: Once the samples are secured in the orbiter, it would depart Mars and begin its journey back to Earth.
- Sample Return Capsule: The sample container would be placed in a specially designed Sample Return Capsule (SRC) to ensure the samples remain uncontaminated during their journey back to Earth. The SRC would be released from the orbiter upon approaching Earth and would descend through the atmosphere before landing.
China’s Mars sample return mission would be a significant milestone in the nation’s space exploration program. Successfully returning Martian samples to Earth would provide invaluable insights into the planet’s geology, climate, and history, and it may also help answer the longstanding question of whether life ever existed on Mars. Furthermore, the technological advancements and experience gained from this mission would contribute to China’s long-term goals of exploring the solar system and, ultimately, sending humans to Mars.
Europe – ExoMars and Mars Sample Return
The ExoMars program is a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Russia’s space agency, Roscosmos (see below about Russian involvement in Mars missions). The program aims to investigate the Martian environment and search for signs of past or present life on Mars. The ExoMars program consists of two separate missions, launched in 2016 and planned for 2028, each with distinct objectives and spacecraft components.
The first phase of the ExoMars program, launched on March 14, 2016, consisted of two primary components:
a. Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO): The TGO is an orbiter that has been studying the Martian atmosphere since it began its science mission in April 2018. Its main objectives are to investigate the presence and distribution of trace gases, particularly methane, which may indicate active geological or biological processes. The TGO is also mapping the planet’s surface and searching for water ice deposits. In addition to its scientific mission, the orbiter serves as a communication relay between Mars rovers, landers, and Earth.
b. Schiaparelli Lander: The Schiaparelli lander, also known as the ExoMars Entry, Descent, and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), was designed to demonstrate landing technologies for future Mars missions. Unfortunately, the lander encountered issues during its descent and ultimately crash-landed on the Martian surface on October 19, 2016.
The second phase of the ExoMars program is scheduled for launch in 2028 and the mission includes:
a. ExoMars Rover (Rosalind Franklin): Named after the pioneering scientist Rosalind Franklin, the ExoMars rover is designed to search for signs of past or present life on Mars. The rover is equipped with a drill capable of reaching depths of up to 2 meters below the surface to collect samples. This will allow it to access material that is shielded from harsh surface radiation, increasing the chances of detecting potential biosignatures.
b. Surface Science Platform (Kazachok Lander): The Russian-built Kazachok lander will carry the ExoMars rover to the Martian surface and provide a platform for scientific experiments. It is equipped with several instruments to study the environment, including a meteorological station, cameras, and a suite of sensors to investigate the planet’s subsurface.
The ExoMars program represents a significant effort by the European Space Agency and Roscosmos to explore Mars and further our understanding of the planet’s potential habitability. The program’s focus on searching for signs of past or present life emphasizes the growing international interest in understanding Mars’ geology, climate, and history, as well as the potential for future human exploration.
Mars Sample Return mission
As mentioned earlier, ESA is partnering with NASA for the Mars Sample Return mission. By combining their resources and expertise, both agencies hope to achieve this ambitious goal, which will provide invaluable insights into the geology and history of Mars.
United Arab Emirates – Hope Mars Mission
The Hope Mars Mission, also known as the Emirates Mars Mission, is the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) first interplanetary exploration project. Launched on July 19, 2020, the mission aims to study the Martian atmosphere and climate, contributing to the global understanding of the planet’s weather systems and helping scientists build a more comprehensive picture of Mars’ environment. The mission also serves as a source of inspiration and pride for the UAE, marking its entry into the field of space exploration and fostering interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) among its citizens.
The spacecraft, named “Al-Amal” or “Hope” in Arabic, is an orbiter designed and developed by the Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) in collaboration with various international partners, including the University of Colorado Boulder, Arizona State University, and the University of California, Berkeley.
The Hope orbiter carries three primary scientific instruments to study the Martian atmosphere:
- Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS): EMIRS measures the global distribution of dust, water ice, and temperature in the lower atmosphere using infrared spectroscopy. This information helps scientists understand the mechanisms that drive Mars’ weather and climate.
- Emirates Exploration Imager (EXI): EXI is a high-resolution multiband camera that captures images of Mars’ surface and atmosphere in visible and ultraviolet light. These images provide valuable information about the planet’s mineralogy, water ice distribution, and atmospheric dynamics.
- Emirates Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS): EMUS is an ultraviolet spectrometer that measures the distribution and variability of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and oxygen in the Martian upper atmosphere. By studying these constituents, scientists can better understand the processes responsible for atmospheric loss and the evolution of Mars’ climate over time.
The Hope orbiter successfully entered Mars’ orbit on February 9, 2021, making the UAE the fifth space agency to reach the Red Planet. This Mars mission is expected to last for at least one Martian year (approximately 687 Earth days), with the possibility of an extension based on the spacecraft’s performance and remaining resources.
In addition to advancing scientific knowledge about Mars, the Hope Mars Mission serves as a catalyst for the UAE’s growing space industry and broader technological development. The mission’s success has demonstrated the nation’s capabilities in space exploration and engineering, inspiring future generations of Emirati scientists and engineers to pursue careers in the space sector.
India – Mars Orbiter Mission and Future Plans
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also known as Mangalyaan, is India’s first interplanetary mission to Mars. Launched on November 5, 2013, by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the Mars mission marked India’s entry into the field of Mars exploration. Mangalyaan’s primary objectives are to demonstrate India’s technological capabilities in interplanetary space missions and to study the Martian atmosphere and surface using scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft.
The Mars Orbiter Mission successfully entered Mars’ orbit on September 24, 2014, making India the first Asian nation to reach Mars and the fourth space agency to achieve this feat after NASA, Roscosmos, and ESA. The Mars Orbiter spacecraft is equipped with five scientific instruments:
- Mars Colour Camera (MCC): The MCC is a high-resolution camera that captures images of the Martian surface and atmosphere in full color. These images help scientists study the geology, morphology, and composition of Mars’ surface features, as well as monitor the planet’s dynamic weather patterns.
- Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP): The LAP is an instrument that measures the relative abundance of deuterium and hydrogen in the Martian upper atmosphere. By studying this ratio, scientists can gain insights into the process of atmospheric loss and the history of water on Mars.
- Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM): The MSM is designed to measure methane levels in the Martian atmosphere. Methane is of particular interest because its presence could indicate geological activity or even past or present microbial life.
- Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA): MENCA is a mass spectrometer that measures the composition of neutral particles in Mars’ upper atmosphere. This data helps scientists understand the dynamics and structure of the Martian exosphere.
- Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS): The TIS is an imaging spectrometer that measures the thermal emissions from the Martian surface, providing information about the mineralogy and thermophysical properties of the surface materials.
The Mars Orbiter Mission was initially planned to last for six months, but the spacecraft has far exceeded its expected lifespan and continues to operate and send valuable data back to Earth. The Mars mission’s success has not only contributed to the global understanding of Mars but also established India as a significant player in the field of space exploration. The Mars Orbiter Mission serves as a source of inspiration and pride for the Indian space program and its future endeavors in exploring the solar system.
While the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has expressed its intentions to launch a follow-up mission to the successful Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), specific details about the Mangalyaan-2 mission remain limited. ISRO has not yet released a detailed timeline, spacecraft design, or scientific objectives for the mission, but it is expected to build on the achievements and knowledge gained from the first Mangalyaan mission.
Potential areas of focus for the Mangalyaan-2 mission could include:
- Advanced Scientific Objectives: The new mission may carry more advanced scientific instruments to study the Martian surface and atmosphere in greater detail, addressing new research questions and expanding on the findings of the first mission.
- Surface Exploration: Mangalyaan-2 might involve the development and deployment of a lander or rover to explore the Martian surface directly, similar to NASA’s Mars rovers or the European Space Agency’s ExoMars program.
- Technology Demonstration: The Mars mission could serve as a platform to test and demonstrate new technologies for future ISRO interplanetary missions, such as advanced propulsion systems or improved communication systems.
- International Collaboration: Mangalyaan-2 may also present an opportunity for ISRO to collaborate with other space agencies on scientific objectives, instruments, or technology development, strengthening international cooperation in space exploration.
It is clear that ISRO aims to continue its involvement in Mars exploration, building on the success of the Mars Orbiter Mission. The future mission is likely to contribute further to our understanding of the Red Planet while showcasing India’s growing capabilities in space exploration.
Russia – Past Efforts and Future Collaboration?
Russia, with its rich history of space exploration, has had a tumultuous relationship with Mars missions. Several attempts to reach the Red Planet, dating back to the 1960s, have faced various degrees of success and failure. The most recent endeavor, the Fobos-Grunt mission in 2011, failed to leave Earth’s orbit.
Despite past setbacks, Russia remained committed to Mars exploration. The Russian space agency, Roscosmos, has partnered with the European Space Agency for the ExoMars program. As part of this collaboration, Roscosmos was supposed to provide the launch vehicle for the Rosalind Franklin rover and contribute to the Mars Sample Return mission.
Recent international crisis and war in Ukraine led the European Space Agency to terminate its cooperation in 2022 with Russia to launch Europe’s first planetary rover. Future collaboration is uncertain and currently in the blue.
The race to Mars is a testament to humanity’s drive for exploration and discovery. As countries around the world invest in Mars missions, we edge ever closer to unraveling the mysteries of the Red Planet and potentially establishing a human presence there. The latest updates on Mars missions from different countries highlight the global effort and collaboration that characterize this exciting chapter in space exploration. As we continue to follow the progress of these missions, one thing is clear: the race to Mars is far from over, and the coming years promise even more thrilling developments.
Additional References About Mars Missions
Below is a list of reputable websites that provide information and updates about Mars missions from around the world:
- NASA Mars Exploration Program: https://mars.nasa.gov/
- SpaceX Mars missions: https://www.spacex.com/
- European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Exploration: https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Mars_Express
- China National Space Administration (CNSA) – Mars Exploration: http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/english/n6465652/n6465653/c6809882/content.html
- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Mars Orbiter Mission: https://www.isro.gov.in/MarsOrbiterMissionSpacecraft.html
- United Arab Emirates – Hope Mars Mission: https://www.mbrsc.ae/emirates-mars-mission
- ExoMars – ESA and Roscosmos collaboration: http://exploration.esa.int/mars/48088-mission-overview/
These websites offer official information and updates on their respective Mars missions. Check also this Mars Rover kit for adults and kids if you like building things. Additionally, you can find news and updates about Mars missions and exploration from reputable science news websites:
- Space.com: https://www.space.com/
- The Planetary Society: https://www.planetary.org/
- Universe Today: https://www.universetoday.com/
- Ars Technica: https://arstechnica.com/science/
- National Geographic: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/
These websites provide comprehensive coverage of Mars missions and other space exploration topics. Always remember to verify the credibility of any sources you use for research and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in Mars missions from around the world.
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